The Reconquista (The Reconquest), which happened from 718 to 1492, was a series of battles mainly fought between Christians and Moors (Muslims) for control of the Iberian Peninsula. By the end of the Reconquista, all of the Iberian Peninsula would be ruled by the Christians.
The Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula began in 711 when Muslims invaded from across the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the forces of King Roderic in what is now Spain. More Muslims later followed and they would conquer more territories like Merida, Cordoba, Toledo, and Zaragoza.
From these would come the Umayyad Caliphate, the Emirate of Cordoba, the Caliphate of Cordova, the Almohad Caliphate and several other Muslim caliphates and dynasties.
In 718 King Pelayo of the Visigoths defeats an army sent to put down his rebellion in Asturias. The victory would inspire Christians in other areas to rebel.
In 721 the Muslims would be repelled by Charlemagne from France.
The fighting between the Christians and Muslims would go on and off over the next 700 years.
One by one, the provinces in the Iberian Peninsula would become Christian Kingdoms. Asturias becomes a Christian kingdom in 791, Castille in 950, and Toledo in 1085. By 1468 Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would form Spain out of the territories of Castille and Aragon.
Scholars agree the fall of Grenada in 1492 to the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain ended the Reconquista. Grenada is the lowermost province in Spain and bound by the Strait of Gibraltar.
Historians say the Reconquista was important to the formation and development of the Spanish national identity.
It is the far southwest of the mainland European continent bound by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is also just a short distance from North Africa.
Spain, Portugal, and Andorra. Andorra was not prominent in the Reconquista because it was then part of France.
All Moors are Muslims but not all Muslims are Moors. Moors are specifically Muslims living in Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
No, the Crusades were targeted at Jerusalem. But during the Second Crusade an army passing through Portugal did help retake it from the Muslims.
Immediately after expelling all Muslim forces from the peninsula, the Christians enforced the Alhambra Decree, requiring all Jews in Castile and Aragon to convert to Christianity or be expelled.