**What was the Islamic Empire and where was it located? **

**What was the Islamic Empire and where was it located?**

The Islamic Empire was one of the largest Empires of the world at its time of power. The Islamic Empire refers to the caliphates which were established after the death of Muhammad, and which spread under the rule of the Islamic caliphs until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the medieval era.

The Islamic Empire mostly covered the Middle East, Eastern Europe and parts of North Africa.

The Islamic Empire was divided into multiple territories, which were ruled over by a single caliphate. The word caliphate refers to both an Islamic region and the government which controls it.

Each caliphate had its own capital cities – and usually, these changed every couple of centuries. These capital cities were often the hubs of major scientific and technological development, and many great thinkers were born within their walls.

**What was the Golden Age of Islam?**

**What was the Golden Age of Islam?**

The Golden Age of Islam was a time of huge development for the early Islamic world. There were a great number of scientific, technological and cultural advances in this period (790 – 1258 A.D.), and Arabic art and architecture reached heights which had never been seen before.

The Golden Age of Islam was like the Renaissance of Europe, a time of great progress for society which saw huge steps forward in nearly every sector.

However, the effects of the Golden Age of Islam were not only confined to the Islamic Empire; due to how far Islamic traders travelled to sell their wares, the ideas developed by scholars in Golden Age of Islam spread far and wide, and formed the basis for many systems that are still in place today.

These fields include, but are not limited to, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, and architecture. Some of the world’s most well-known scientists were born during the Golden Age of Islam.

**How did mathematics develop in the Islamic Empire?**

**How did mathematics develop in the Islamic Empire?**

Many important mathematical concepts were invented or further developed in the Islamic Empire, including algebra, calculus, and trigonometry. Calculus and trigonometry, in particular, have deeply Islamic roots.

Trigonometry is a system of mathematics which revolves around triangles, and is used commonly in architecture, art, engineering, and design. Calculus is used in complex equations, and is important to sectors such as the field of mathematics, finance, and various sciences.

Using the work of Greek mathematicians, Islamic scholars additionally made great progress in having algebra recognized as a legitimate field of mathematics. The name “algebra” comes from the Arabic word “al-jabr” which means “the reunion of broken parts.”

**Who are some important Islamic mathematicians?**

**Who are some important Islamic mathematicians?**

The Islamic mathematician Al-Khwarizmi was the father of new-age Islamic mathematics, and was the most notable mathematician from the Islamic Golden Age. His work formed the basis of modern algebra.

He wrote the world’s first algebra textbook, in which he solved over 100 equations and explained exactly how he did it. He also invented the decimal numerical system, the most widely used number system across the world.

Another important Golden Age mathematician was Ibrahim Ibn Sinan, who made great contributions to the field of trigonometry, further developing the fields of architecture and design.

**How did medicine develop in the Islamic Empire? **

**How did medicine develop in the Islamic Empire?**

The world’s first major medical encyclopedia, the Canon of Medicine, was published in the Islamic Empire, and later spread across Europe and Asia.

In many countries, it was used as the standard textbook for medical students. The author of the Canon of Medicine was named Ibn Sina, a medical scientist who lived and died during the Golden Age of Islam.

**Who are some important Islamic doctors?**

**Who are some important Islamic doctors?**

Aside from Ibn Sina, there were two other particularly important doctors of the Islamic Empire. The first was the Persian scientist, Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, born during the Golden Age of Islam.

Al-Tabari was a pioneer in the treatment of children, and made great contributions to the field of modern psychotherapy and psychology.

Another important medical scholar of the Islamic Empire was Ali ibn al’Abbas al Majusi, who wrote a book called “The Complete Book of the Medical Art”. His book was used as a medical textbook in the Islamic Empire prior to the completion of Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine.

Many medical advancements made during the Middle Ages would not have been possible without the work of these Islamic scholars.

**Facts about the Scholars and Scientists of the Islamic Empire:**

**Facts about the Scholars and Scientists of the Islamic Empire:**

- The Golden Age of Islam was a time of huge development in the early Islamic world.
- The Golden Age of Islam was like the Renaissance of Europe, a time of great progress for society which saw huge steps forward in nearly every sector.
- Due to how far Islamic traders travelled to sell their wares, the ideas developed by scholars in Golden Age of Islam spread far and wide, and formed the basis for many systems that are still in place today.
- Many important mathematical concepts were invented or further developed in the Islamic Empire, including algebra, calculus, and trigonometry.
- Islamic scholars additionally made great progress in having algebra recognized as a legitimate field of mathematics. The name “algebra” comes from the Arabic word “al-jabr” which means “the reunion of broken parts.”
- The Islamic mathematician Al-Khwarizmi was the father of new-age Islamic mathematics, and was the most notable mathematician from the Islamic Golden Age. His work formed the basis of modern algebra.
- The world’s first major medical encyclopedia, the Canon of Medicine, was published in the Islamic Empire and later spread across Europe and Asia.
- The author of the Canon of Medicine was named Ibn Sina, a medical scientist who lived and died during the Golden Age of Islam.

**QUESTIONS:**

**QUESTIONS:**

**What was the Golden Age of Islam?**

– A time of huge cultural, economic, and technological development in the Islamic world.

**What fields saw great development during the Golden Age of Islam?**

– The fields of mathematics, medicine, architecture, art, and biology.

**Name two important mathematicians of the Golden Age of Islam.**

** – **Al-Khwarizmi and Ibrahim Ibn Sinan.

**What medical textbook was first written during the Golden Age of Islam?**

– The Canon of Medicine.

**How did the ideas of Islamic scholars spread across the world during the Golden Age of Islam?**

– The ideas of the Golden Age of Islam spread through the travel of Muslim traders.

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Islamic Empire