Ancient Roman Wars and Battles

Ancient Romans fought in a multitude of wars to protect and extend their empire.

Headed by Titus Flamininus along with highly-trained Roman soldiers, Ancient Rome began their imperial status during the 2nd-century B.C.E when they single-handedly conquered the Macedonian troops which were led by Phillip V in 197 B.C.E. at Cynoscephalae in Thessaly.

To this day, it is still considered as one of the greatest wins of Ancient Rome as it defeated the successors of former Greek general Alexander the Great.

A few years later, Ancient Rome became one of the superpowers of the Hellenic world following its victory over the famed armies of Seleucid and Magnesia in Asia Minor.

Prior to their victory at Cynoscephalae, Ancient Rome also engaged in wars with the Carthage starting from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C. Dubbed as the Punic Wars, the battle between Carthage and Ancient Rome lasted throughout the course of the next 118 years.

Located in North Africa, Carthage was among the world’s superpowers and was extending its territory.

As the territories of Rome and Carthage started to expand, both cities engaged in the First Punic War which lasted for more than two decades.

The First Punic War which took place on the island of Sicily was won by the Romans after it invented the Corvus which was an assault bridge that enabled Roman soldiers to penetrate their enemy’s ship.

It is, however, worth noting that the war did not end there as Carthage were able to attack Northern Italy and the rest of Rome with the leadership of its general, Hannibal.

Despite his several successes against Roman soldiers, Hannibal was unable to fully conquer the city of Rome as they were forced to surrender in Battle of Zama after Carthage suffered massive damages.

Other than the historic Punic wars, Romans also fought fellow Romans in order to obtain power.

In the period of 49 B.C. to 45 B.C., Julius Caesar along with its legions fought against Pompey the Great and its troops in the war dubbed as the Great Roman Civil War.

Caesar subsequently defeated Pompey and went on to become the dictator of Rome, thus, ending the Roman Republic.

Interesting Fact about the Wars and Battles of Rome

  • The first Civil War in Rome took place in 88 B.C. Known as the Marian-Sullan Civil Wars; the primary reason for the war was the power struggle between politicians and generals Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius.
  • While the city of Carthage is located in North Africa, it only took a short sea journey from Rome to the Mediterranean Sea to reach the place.
  • Julius Caesar signaled everyone that he was going to battle Rome when he crossed the Rubicon River.
  • The Battle of Agrigentum was the first skirmish between Rome and Carthage. It took place during 261 B.C.
  • The Battle of Alesia which enabled Rome to expand their empire to Switzerland, northern Italy, France, and Belgium were among the greatest victories by Julius Caesar.
  • A Germanic tribe led by Arminius put an end to Rome’s empire expansion in 9 A.D.
  • The Battle of Abritus in 251 A.D. killed Emperor Decius and his son Herennius Estruscus.

Who was the first Emperor of Rome?

Octavian became the first Emperor of Rome after it won the Battle of Actium. He later changed his name to Augustus.

Who took part in the Battle of Actium?

Another Roman war that was etched in the history books of the city was the Battle of Actium. In 31 B.C. the Octavian troops headed by Marcus Agrippa beat the troops of Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra VII and Roman general Marc Antony.

How important is the Battle of the Milvian Bridge?

The Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 A.D. assumed a critical part in advancing Christianity. A year following the victory of Rome, Christianity was heavily recognized in the city.

Who were the Emperors that fought in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge?

Emperors Maxentius and Constantine fought for struggle during the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.