The Greco-Roman period in the history of ancient Egypt started in 332 BCE when Alexander the Great defeated Persians and entered Egypt, and it ended when the Arabs conquered Egypt in 642 CE.
Alexander of Macedon had already won two great victories – in western Turkey and on the Levantine coast – against the Persians before he arrived in Egypt in 332.
The Egyptians greeted him as their saviour, and the Persian king who ruled Egypt at the time, Darius III, opened the borders to let Alexander’s army in.
The Macedonian dynasty ruled for a very short time. Alexander of Macedon had only spent a year in Egypt; where he became the pharaoh, started building Alexandria, the new capital city, introduced a Greek monetary system, renovated several temples, and moved on to conquer more territories.
His son, Alexander IV, succeeded the throne much later. In the meantime, general Perdiccas acted as regent for Alexander the Great’s half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus, and young Alexander IV.
Instead, Egypt was governed by an “Augustal prefect” who was only responsible to the emperor.
Which great emperor ended the Persian rule in Egypt?
It was Alexander the Great of Macedon
Which Greek dynasty ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years?
The Ptolemaic Dynasty
Who was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty?
What is the name of the emperor of Rome who defeated Cleopatra?
It was Emperor Augustus
Why was Egypt so important for the Romans?
Egypt was important because of its great wealth, grain production, and a large port.