When there are two blocks or plates on the Earth, and one slips past the other one in a fast motion, this is called a fault. The plates are called tectonic plates when the edges move or slip past another plate. It causes the Earth to shake because of all of the energy and friction that is moving. The energy turns into seismic waves that act like ripples in a pond, and this is why the Earth shakes.
When the Earth’s crust starts to slip, this can happens because two different pieces of the Earth’s surface will slip, and this will cause the shaking and the movement.
There are four different types of earthquakes:
The Earth’s surface is made up of different plates.
The Earth is continually moving, and the plates of the Earth’s surface are continuously moving and shifting.
When these rocks move and shift, they cause the Earth to quake.
The stress on the Earth causes a natural disaster when the plates move, and when this happens, the shaking helps the crust to release some of the stress.
When enough stress is put on the Earth’s plates, some of the crust will break, and when they break happens, the shock dissipates through energy, and the energy moves in the form of waves throughout the Earth.
When an earthquake starts, it usually begins under the surface of the earth. This is called the hypocenter.
The place right above the hypocenter is the epicenter.
When an earthquake happens, it is strongest when it reaches the epicenter.
The Earth has large plates that are called tectonic plates.
These plates move all the time and even when the edges get stuck on other plates, they continue to move.
When the plates move, they build up the pressure because they become stuck on one another.
When the stress gets very strong, the plates will move quickly and send out a shock.
When the continents are moving around, this is called the Theory of the Plate Tectonics.
This theory says that there are many large, thin, and rigid plates that are all moving along with one another.
The plates move fast, slow, and in between and are all moving at different times and speeds.
The edges of the tectonic plates are called fault lines.
A fault is part of the area of the Earth where the plates slide back and forth past each other. These faults cause there to be cracks in the surface of the Earth.
There are four different types of faults:
A dip-slip fault is also called a normal fault.
This type of fault is a fault where part of it has moved from the top to the bottom. This happens when the plates extend.
A dip-slip reverse fault is also called a thrust fault.
This fault happens when an upper block that is above the fault goes to the lower block. This happens when one plate is being pushed under another plate.
A strike-slip fault is when there are two blocks in the fault that slide past each other.
There are two different types of strike-slip faults, the left-lateral strike-slip fault and the right-lateral strike-slip fault.
The left-lateral strike-slip fault is when the left black can be seen from either side.
The right-lateral strike-slip fault is when the block on the right can be seen from either side.
An oblique-slip fault has both dipping and strike characteristics.
This type of fault has to have both in order to be measured as an oblique-slip fault.
When an earthquake happens, there is a chance that there will be an aftershock.
An aftershock is a small earthquake that happens after a large earthquake.
These happen because the earthquake has caused there to be energy waves.
The leftover energy waves sometimes cause there to be more earthquakes, only smaller.
A tsunami is a string of fast-moving waves in the ocean caused by a powerful underwater earthquake.
Tsunami waves can inundate coastal areas causing widespread damage to homes, villages, and towns.
The tsunami early warning system (TWS) can help warn people of a potential wave reaching land so they have time to get to safety.
When a scientist measures an earthquake, they use what is called seismic waves. A seismic wave is the shock waves that travel through the ground. The center of the earthquake has the strongest seismic waves.
Facts About Seismic Waves:
The Richter Scale is one way that scientists measure how strong the earthquake is.
When the scale increases by one point, it means that there is ten times more shaking and more than 33 times more energy.
The Richter Scale is measured like this:
Earthquakes can be very dangerous, and it is important that you are prepared if you live in an area where earthquakes happen.
Here is what you need to do if there is an earthquake:
Here is what you need to do after an earthquake:
More information can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey website