The Earth is made up of all different kinds of layers and parts and some of the parts are always moving.
The layers get thicker when you get closer to the core of the Earth.
The Earth has four main layers and they go in this order from outside to inside:
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. This layer is thinner than the other layers and it is about 5 kilometers to 70 kilometers thick.
We live on what is called the continental crust which is part of the layer of the Earth.
The crust combines different types of rock, such as Igneous rocks, Sedimentary rock, and igneous.
The continental crust is made up of different rocks but mostly of silica and alumina. The silica and alumina of the Earth’s Crust are called “sial.”
The crust is the layer of the Earth that people live on. The crust also has the sea, soil, mountains, oceans, and more. The crust is around 305 miles thick in the ocean.
More facts about the crust:
The mantle is the part of the Earth’s that is between the crust and the outer core. The mantle is thicker than the crust and can be over 3000 kilometers thick. This part of the Earth is made up of silicate rocks that have a lot of magnesium and iron in them.
Many scientists put the mantle into two different categories; the upper mantle and the lower mantle.
There are only tiny differences between the two mantles.
The main difference between the upper and lower mantle is that the upper mantle has a special rock called olivine. Olivine is made up of silicon dioxide and peridotite. Peridotite is very heavy rock.
The lower mantle is stronger and is solid. It is made up of:
The mantel has semi-solid rocks that can turn into liquid if there is enough pressure.
When the rocks get very hot and then get very cool, it causes them to sink back into the core and this is what causes the crust to break into different plates and sections.
When these plates and sections move, it is what causes there to be different things that happen on the Earth such as earthquakes and volcanic activity (molten rock and melting lava to flow).
When there is a different movement of the crust and the plates, it is called plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is the cause of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic activity.
When the plates move, they cause mountains and floors in the sea to be formed.
Sea floors are made of basalt, a rock that is very thick. When the rock is formed, it presses into the mantle and this can cause it to fill with water.
Plate tectonics is part of the creation of continents because continents are formed when plates move and are formed together. These are formed and moved because of icebergs and other movements.
The core is made up of two different layers:
When the Earth has formed billions of years ago, the part of the Earth that was formed that was the heaviest part went to the middle of the Earth and this is how the inner core was formed.
The other substances that were lighter and flowier stayed on the top of the Earth or stayed at the crust of the Earth.
Since the heavier materials went to the middle, this made the inner core almost solid which is what makes it so heavy and thick.
The outer core is located between the mantle and the inner core of the Earth. The outer core is mostly made up of nickel and iron and is more than 4000 degrees Celsius, so it is extremely hot.
The nickel and the iron are in liquid form because of it being so hot in the outer core.
The outer core creates a magnetic field, just like the North and South Pole do. The magnetic field helps to protect the Earth from so much solar radiation and from solar winds that could damage the Earth.
The magnetic field of the outer core goes all the way into space, so the Earth is very protected.
More facts about the outer core:
The Inner Core is located inside the outer core. Like the outer core, the inner core is also made up of nickel and iron but instead of it being a liquid, it is solid.
Even though the inner core is very hot just like the outer core, there is a lot of pressure that is applied from all of the other Earth’s layers. Because of the pressure, it causes the nickel and the iron to be solid.
The inner core, even though the nickel and iron are solid, it is the hottest part of the Earth and it is over 5000 degrees Celsius.
More facts about the inner core:
Inside the Earth are things that are happening such as seismic waves. The waves are caused by things that are going on around the Earth such as volcanic explosions, earthquakes, ocean movement, and more.
When these things happen, it causes seismic waves to move. There are two types of seismic waves:
The seismic waves cause energy to travel through the different layers of the Earth. When these waves move, things can happen like the magma can move, tectonic plates move or landslides can happen. These energies cause different reactions from the waves.
When scientists study these waves, they use a machine that is called a seismograph.