Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are an important part of our bodies. Vitamins are substances that are found in plants and animals and our food is made from these substances.

Vitamins are only needed in small amounts in order for the body to function correctly.

Minerals are also a very needed part for the body. Minerals are inorganic and they help the body to grow and they help aid in the repair of body tissues.


Vitamins are important for the body in small amounts because it helps the body function properly and helps to form a strong metabolism.

A small number of vitamins can help the body to fight off sicknesses and diseases.

Vitamins are group into two different groups, water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that can leave the body easily. Water-soluble vitamins include:

  • Vitamin C
  • Thiamin
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Folate
  • Biotin
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

The fat-soluble vitamins can add up quickly in the body and a person can get too much of these vitamins. The fat-soluble vitamins include:

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

Function of Vitamins

Some vitamins work on their own, such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E, and are antioxidants. An antioxidant is a substance that helps to heal parts of the cell that are damaged and can help our bodies to fight off diseases.

Other vitamins, such as biotin, are coenzymes. A coenzyme is a molecule that helps the cell do its job.


Minerals help the body to grow and repair body tissues. There are many important minerals that are used to help to body build tissues. The minerals that help to build body tissues include:

  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Iodine
  • Phosphorus

Other minerals are important because they help with growth. Some of these minerals include:

  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Sulfur
  • Chlorine
  • Magnesium

Trace Elements

Some vitamins such as iodine or iron are important, but they are needed to be taken in very small doses. A trace element is any mineral that needs to be taken in small amounts. Other trace elements include:

  • Copper
  • Selenium
  • Chromium
  • Molybdenum
  • Zinc
  • Manganese


Iron is very important for the body because it is part of the hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that helps to move oxygen throughout the body.

Sodium and Potassium

Sodium and potassium are important because they help to make sure that water and other body fluids are regulated and that your body has enough and not too much.

Calcium and Phosphorus

Calcium and Phosphorus are important minerals because these minerals help to repair your teeth and your bones.

Facts About Vitamins and Minerals

  • Vitamin deficiencies can cause sicknesses and even death.
  • Taking too many fat-soluble vitamins can make a person sick.
  • Any vitamin that is water-soluble needs to be dissolved in water before the body can absorb them.
  • Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body.
  • Vitamins that are not used pass through the body through urine.
  • Vitamins are organic substances because they are made by animals or plants.
  • Minerals are inorganic because they come from soil and water.
  • Food can help you get vitamins and minerals that you need.
  • Carrots contain carotenoids that your body turns in to Vitamin A and this can help give you better eyesight.
  • Vitamin K helps to clot your blood quickly.

What Did You Learn?

  • Vitamins can be put in to two different groups. What are they? Vitamins can be either fat-soluble, which means too much can get in the body, or water-soluble which means they leave the body quickly.
  • Why are vitamins important? Vitamins are important because they help keep the body strong and healthy. Some vitamins are antioxidants which means they help the body to stay well.
  • Vitamins that are coenzymes do what? Vitamins that are coenzymes work together with the cell to make sure it is working correctly.
  • What is the difference between a vitamin and a mineral? A vitamin is made of plants or animals and a mineral comes from soil and water.
  • What vitamin helps with eyesight? Vitamin A helps people see better.
  • What vitamin helps your blood clot quickly? Vitamin K helps the blood to clot quickly.