Of the two types of cells, Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are the simplest.
These cells don’t have any membrane-bound organelles or a nucleus, and all of the prokaryotes are single-celled organisms.
Because prokaryotes are less complex than eukaryotes, they have fewer complex functions and are therefore smaller than eukaryotic cells.
The average size of a eukaryote is from 10-100 micrometers and the average size of a prokaryote is around 1-3 micrometers.
Prokaryotes don’t have organelles, which are required for the cell to carry out very sophisticated functions.
All prokaryotes share some of the same types of features. They all have DNA, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and they have a membrane. The importance of the DNA is so that it can carry the genetic information of the cell.
Both the membrane and cytoplasm assist in making sure that the cell keeps it shape as well as in protecting it. The ribosomes assist in making proteins for the cell.
When you see the prokaryote DNA is appears completely different from the DN in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryote DNA is circular and small and kind of looks like a hula-hoop.
Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus so their DNA freely floats around in their cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus that houses their DNA.
Prokaryotic cells have cells walls in the same way that plants do and these are used as part of a protection.
Prokaryotes also produce asexually, meaning by themselves, through a process known as “binary fission,” which is a kind of very simple mitosis; or by “budding”, which is similar to the way plants bud.
Most prokaryotic cells also have a high metabolic rate and a high growth rate.
Eukaryotes are found in both multi-cellular and some singularly-celled organisms, but prokaryotes are always single-celled organisms.
Scientists that study cells believe that the appearance of the first prokaryotes on earth was around 3.5 billion years ago.
For many years they were the only life on earth until around 1.5 billion years ago when the prokaryotes evolved into eukaryotes.
Prokaryotes have two groups: archaea and bacteria. While there are some differences between the two, both don’t have a nucleus or organelles.
Prokaryotic cells help to maintain the balance for all life on earth.
These cells play a critical part in the recycling process of nutrients from decomposing organisms.
By taking in the nutrients from dead organisms they allow the nutrients to be re-used.
Prokaryotic organisms are also involved in the metabolic processes for other organisms, such as us.
They help our immune systems, in our digestion, and are even a source for our vitamins.
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