The integumentary system makes up the body’s skin, nails and hair. Each of these parts of the body play an important role.
The skin helps to protect the body from infection and repels water. The skin has an outer layer called the epidermis and the cells are formed in the first layer and move up and new cells form below.
When this happens, the skin dies and falls off. A human loses many skin cells each day. The dermis is the inner layer and the tissue is strong and elastic. There are many blood vessels in the dermis and there is a fat layer that protects the body from high and low temperatures.
The skin contains sweat and oil glands that help rid toxins out of the body.The skin can heal itself. If the skin is burned, depending on the burn, the skin can heal. First degree burns hurt but they heal fast while second- and third-degree burns can cause death.
Hair and nails play an important role in the body. The hair helps to protect the body from the sun and it also traps in heat when it is cold outside. The hair has different parts such as the cuticle, the cortex, medulla, external roots, internal roots and matrix which is tissue that helps to keep the hair in place.
Hair grows when there are new cells that form in the skin and the cells are replaced by new cells. Hair also protects your ears and is made of a protein substance that is called keratin. Hair is only found in mammals and it is dead, keratin that is filled with cells that overlap each other.
Hair protects the body from heat loss and eyelashes and eyebrows protect the eyes form dirt and water and other irritants that flow in the air. Hairs in the nose trap particles so that they do not reach the lungs.
The nails help to protect the fingers and toes from different types of injuries. The nails are made of epidermal cells that are thick and strong.
The nails have sensory receptors under them and these help to tell the body when it is cold, if there is pressure or pain and they help protect the body.
Nails help to keep the fingers from bending backwards. Nails, just like hair are made of keratin and the keratin helps to make the nails hard.