Organelles are small organ-like structures inside cells. They perform functions that aid cell function.
What is a cell organelle?
An organelle refers to the tiny, organ-like entities found within cells. These structures perform various functions essential for the cell’s operation.
What are the different types of cells?
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are the two main types of cells.
Prokaryotic cells are simpler than eukaryotic cells. They lack membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria and a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria. They consist of the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA/RNA.
Plant and animal cells are two types of eukaryotic cells.
Plant cells are rectangular, while animal cells are circular. Plant cells have chloroplasts and one large vacuole that takes up 90% of the cell. Animal cells lack chloroplasts and have many small vacuoles scattered throughout.
Do all cells have the same organelles?
1. Cells have specialized organelles for specific purposes. Plant cells, for instance, contain chloroplasts and chlorophyll, giving plants their green color. This allows them to absorb sunlight and photosynthesize. Additionally, plant cells possess a cell wall instead of a plasma membrane.
2. Specialized organelles in cells serve specific purposes. Take plant cells, for example, which boast chloroplasts and chlorophyll, responsible for their vibrant green hue. These components enable plants to soak up sunlight and carry out photosynthesis. Moreover, plant cells feature a cell wall, not a plasma membrane.
Cell organelles and their functions
|Contains the cell’s DNA and is involved in gene regulation, cell growth, and reproduction.
|Produces energy (ATP) through cellular respiration.
|(In plant cells) Conducts photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy.
|Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
|Rough ER (with ribosomes) is involved in protein synthesis. Smooth ER is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification.
|Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transport out of the cell.
|Contains digestive enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris.
|Breaks down fatty acids and amino acids; detoxifies poisons.
|Synthesize proteins from amino acids.
|Provides structure to the cell, aids in cellular movement, and transports materials within the cell.
|Stores nutrients, waste products, and helps in maintaining cell turgor (especially in plant cells).
|Regulates what enters and leaves the cell; provides protection and support.
|(In plant cells, fungi, and some prokaryotes) Provides additional protection and structure.
Organelles that are found only in plant cells
|Conduct photosynthesis, converting solar energy into chemical energy (glucose).
|Provides additional structural support and protection beyond the cell membrane.
|Maintains cell turgor, stores nutrients and waste products, and degrades waste materials.
|Channels between plant cell walls that allow for transport and communication between cells